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International Political Economy
Obstacles of Economic Development for States
It is factual that most states have experienced numerous hurdles that have pegged their economic development. The setbacks lie in the social, economic and political aspects. The worst hit states are the sub-Saharan countries. They have experienced political setbacks which have totally frozen their growth and development.
Among the setbacks of economic development is poor leadership. According to Anyanwu (2004), most African states have had leaders with poor skills as far as development is concerned. Basically, they do not embrace nation development. Instead, they engage in personal gains. Another aspect that has dragged development processes is the political instability in most nations within the sub-Saharan regions. States such as Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda have had endless civil strife in the recent past. Though the Rwandan case has been settled, states such as Congo and Nigeria do experience civil wars to date (Anyanwu, 2004). For instance, presence of warlords in the Democratic Republic of Congo has hampered development since people do concentrate on protecting themselves as opposed to executing development matters.
Most states suffer from low development due to corruption. Corruption is an extremely huge problem for most developing states. Many top bras leadership of states has been entangled in corrupt expeditions with the aim of swindling of resources from the citizens. As a result, development of such nations has been hampered outright.
In their analysis, Giroh, et al (2008) established that natural calamities have equally played a significant role in stagnating development in most states. Areas located within the southern Sahara region suffer from drought and diseases. As a result, the working population is forced to deal with disease control as opposed to developing their nations. Apart from that, drought effects lower the agricultural sector which is the major booster of most state economies.
Illiteracy is another monumental aspect that has hampered development in most states. Education is the key to success. In contrast, states with a large segment of citizens with no adequate knowledge leads to stagnation in development. Most states have not invested in educating their populous. As a result, they have suffered from the high illiteracy level that has tainted their entire economy.
Can the Above Obstacles be Overcome?
It is clear that all states, at one time in history, experienced some of these challenges. With proper channels in place, they were able to overcome them. Nothing is impossible if proper measures are employed by both the citizens of affected states as well as their leadership. One viable way of overcoming these obstacles is ending the civil strife. Even though a delicate matter, the nationals in conjunction with leadership can seek an amicable way of abolishing civil strife. This can be achieved by setting up laws and policies that provide an equitable way of sharing the national resources. In any case, civil wars are triggered and sustained by the desire to access national resources (Giroh, et al, 2008).
The issue of national calamities can also be addressed once and for all. Affected states should learn from Israel. Israel is located in a desert yet it is one of the countries whose economy relies on agriculture. They simply embraced irrigation which worked for them. This idea can be borrowed by states affected by drought. Diseases should be controlled through upping the nature of health services within states.
Corruption, though a complex matter, can also be eliminated. Two major ways can be used. One is proper choice of leaders. Such leaders should be ready to fight corruption. Visionary leaders would not entertain any form of corruption within their government. The other way to fight this menace is setting up laws that provide harsh penalties to corruption perpetrators.
Can Economic Productive Policies Be Counterproductive
Whether the above statement is true or false, it all depends on the manner in which the set policies are implemented. When a given state sets policies aimed at eliminating corruption or control of a prevailing natural calamity, the success of such an endeavor depends on the level of commitment that the state government exhibits (Anyanwu, 2004). It should be noted that the above two aspects are extremely crucial since they determine the success or failure of the state. Therefore, when they are attacked with the aim of abolishing them, the government should give its best.
This is through fostering public sector and private agency participation. In essence, the policy set up by the government must be given a nod by each stakeholder as far as the policy is concerned. If not accepted, the resulting effect could be worse that before. If the government has developed policies to end corruption within its institutions, the process may be scuffled if a segment of people holding high level offices within the government try to distort the effort. Such a segment would further use corrupt means to inject poison in the otherwise good course by the government. Ultimately, the entire process shall hit a deadlock, and make things worse. In that light, the 'counterproductively' of a policy is dependent on the subsequent unfolding of a given policy.
Key Development Challenges Facing Nigeria
Nigeria is an African state located on the western part of Africa. It is one of the largest states with a high population density. More so, it stands out as one of the well endowed African states as far as natural resources is concerned. Nigeria has got deposits of natural gas and petroleum within its Niger delta. Despite the valuables that this nation boasts of, its economy is terribly impinged upon.
One of the facts that lead to this is corruption. For a long period of time, Nigeria has remained one of the most corrupt states. This is ascribed to the poor leadership that assumed power after Nigeria became a sovereign state. Leaders engaged in satisfying their personal desires as opposed to developing the state (Anyanwu, 2004). This saw leaders such as Babangida use the national coffers for their own benefit. Scandals related to swindling of funds accruing from national oil deposits have been rampant. Unfortunately, no leader has succeeded in extinguishing the corruption fire that is slowly but steadily consuming the Nigerian state.
Civil strife is another terrible hurdle that is facing Nigeria. This state has got two major religions. In the northern part, there is a majority of Muslims while the southern part is covered by Christians (Anyanwu, 2004). The two groups have had no shred of tenderness since the independence day of Nigeria. In fact, there have been attempts for secession by Northerners. The group propagating such attempts is known as Bok-Haram. This is a cohort of military insurgents that have given the Nigerian leadership a rough time in governing the state. In consequence, nothing much has resulted as far as development of the economy is concerned. The Nigerian government spends much of its time calculating how to tame such insurgents instead of dealing with matters of the economy.
Successes and Failings of the Development Experience in China and India
China and India are one of the most populated states in the world. As a result, their economies have been boosted by the availability of market for their private and public entrepreneurships. This has played an integral part in rendering prosperity of the two states. In any case, the economy of any state depends on the availability of market for their industrial goods. For China, its policy to avoid indulging in domestic affairs of other states has attracted many diplomatic friends across Asia and Africa. In consequence, its market sphere has been broadened. India's health sector has done well in the recent past. Thus, it has been able to contain ailments that could drag the development of its economy.
Despite the above positive trends, both India and China have experienced failures too. For example, the communism policy embraced by China has served to discourage private investors. As a result, many have shied away from engaging in entrepreneurship. Apart from that, China's confuciasm culture has destroyed the moral fabric which played an important role in promoting the moral values among citizens. India faces a spell of illiteracy as well as high poverty level. These have been outstanding in distorting the economy of India.